CCRN Practice Quiz

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Question 1
Wolf-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is an atypical situation in cardiac function in which:
A
conduction between the atria and the ventricles occurs outside of the AV node
B
conduction from the SA node to the left atrium via Bachmann's bundle fails
C
conduction between the AV node and Purkinje fibers occurs outside of the bundle of His
D
conduction from the bundle of His fails to branch into Purkinje fibers
Question 1 Explanation: 
Wolf-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is an atypical situation in cardiac function in which the impulse generated in the atrium (via the SA node) travels to the ventricles by means of a path outside of the AV node. This syndrome can cause premature excitation to occur in the atria or ventricles, which can lead to tachydysrhythmias.
Question 2
Which type of transfusion reaction is characterized by an allergic reaction to the proteins in the plasma?
A
hemolytic reaction
B
hypersensitivity reaction/anaphylactic reaction
C
circulatory/volume overload
D
Febrile reaction
Question 2 Explanation: 
Hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylactic reactions) occur when an allergic reaction develops to the proteins in the plasma. Onset of this transfusion reaction can be delayed slightly (30 minutes). The patient with this type of transfusion reaction is likely to develop hives, wheezing, shortness of breath, or hypotension.
Question 3
The majority of blood cells originate in:
A
the yellow marrow of flat bone's medullary cavities
B
the red marrow of long bone's medullary cavities
C
the yellow marrow of flat bones
D
the red marrow of flat bones
Question 3 Explanation: 
The majority of blood cells originate from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells in the red marrow of flat bones. Examples include the vertebrae, ribs, cranium, and pelvis. Yellow marrow, which is composed mainly of fat cells, is found in the medullary cavity of long bones like the femur and humerus.
Question 4
If a patient is requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, the ventilator will generally be set so that the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO<sub>2</sub>) is:
A
between 10-15 percent
B
greater than 30 percent
C
less than 5 percent
D
between15-25 percent
Question 4 Explanation: 
The normal fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at room air is 21 percent. Therefore, if a patient is requiring the use of invasive mechanical ventilation, the ventilation is generally set so that the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) is anywhere from 30 to 100 percent.
Question 5
A guideline for the treatment of patients who present with acute chest pain is the acronym MONA, which stands for:
A
Morphine, Oxygen, Nitroglycerine, Aspirin
B
Milrinone, Oxygen, Nitroglycerine, Amiodarone
C
Morphine, Oxygen, Norepinephrine, ACE inhibitors
D
Metoprolol, Oxygen, Nitroprusside, Atenolol
Question 5 Explanation: 
The acronym MONA is a guideline for the treatment of patients who present with acute chest pain. MONA stands for: Morphine, Oxygen, Nitroglycerine, and Aspirin.
Question 6
Which of the following is NOT a goal in the treatment of hypertensive crisis?
A
determine the primary or secondary cause
B
reduce the blood pressure by at least 50% in the first 1-2 hours of the crisis
C
detect and prevent clinical sequelae immediately
D
encourage patient compliance with their prescribed medical regiment.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The goals of treating hypertensive crisis are to: reduce the individuals blood pressure (but by no more than 25% in the first 1-2 hours of the crisis), determine the primary or secondary cause, immediately detect and prevent clinical sequelae, encourage patient compliance with their prescribed medical regiment, as well as educate the patient on how to decrease risk factors.
Question 7
Air has been detected in the space between a patient's lungs. This is a condition known as:
A
perivascular interstitial emphysema
B
a pneumothorax
C
pneumopericardium
D
pneumomediastinum
Question 7 Explanation: 
Anytime air is found outside of the airways, lungs, stomach, or esophagus it is considered abnormal. Air found between the two lungs is a condition known as pneumomediastinum. Air found in the space around a patient's heart is a condition known as pneumopericardium. Air found between the chest wall and the lung periphery is a condition known as a pneumothorax. Air located around the alveoli is a condition referred to as perivascular interstitial emphysema.
Question 8
A patient in the ICU is suffering from a hernia.  The surgeon decides to conduct a herniorrhaphy, a surgical procedure that is characterized by:
A
surgical reconstructive hernia repair that utilizes a mesh for reinforcement
B
surgical excision of the herniated organ or tissue
C
surgical repair of the hernia via a suturing of the abdominal wall
D
none of the given answers are correct
Question 8 Explanation: 
A herniorrhaphy is a type of hernia surgery in which the herniated organ or tissue is surgically repaired and the abdominal wall is sutured back together. A hernioplasty is another type of reconstructive hernia surgery in which the herniated organ or tissue is reinforced with a mesh.
Question 9
The American Heart Association recommends the use of lipid-lowering agents for patients with triglyceride levels:
A
> 200 mg/dL
B
> 300 mg/dL
C
> 75 mg/dL
D
> 150 mg/dL
Question 9 Explanation: 
It is the American Heart Association's recommendation that patients with triglyceride levels > 150 mg/dL be prescribed lipid-lowering agents. Examples of these agents include atorvastatin (Lipitor) and simvastatin (Zocor).
Question 10
A patient presenting with pulmonary distress is likely to be utilizing which of the following muscles to facilitate inspiration:
A
sternocleidomastoid
B
scalene
C
trapezius
D
all of the given answers are correct
Question 10 Explanation: 
In the case of pulmonary distress, accessory respiratory muscles are often utilized to facilitate inspiration. These accessory muscles include: the scalene muscles, the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the trapezius muscle, as well as the pectoralis muscles.
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